Epilepsy is a disease where disparities and inequities in risk and outcomes are complex and multifactorial. While most epilepsy research to date has identified several key areas of disparities, we set out to provide a multilevel life course model of epilepsy development, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes to highlight how these disparities represent true inequities. Our piece also presents three hypothetical cases that highlight how the solutions to address inequities may vary across the lifespan. We then identify four key domains (structural, socio-cultural, health care, and physiological) that contribute to the persistence of inequities in epilepsy risk and outcomes in the United States. Each of these domains, and their core components in the context of epilepsy, are reviewed and discussed. Further, we highlight the connection between domains and key areas of intervention to strive towards health equity. The goal of this work is to highlight these domains while also providing epilepsy researchers and clinicians with broader context of how their work fits into health equity.